BOTTICELLI MANET CARAVAGGIO PICASSO


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This site is intended to give interesting information about world-famous artists such as Botticelli, Caravaggio, Manet, Picasso, etc.

Also, you can see galleries with their most important artworks. Currently, we have four of the most important painters of history of art, but we will add more soon.


  Venus and Mars - Botticelli - 1483  

 
famous portrait of sandro botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an extremely successful Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). With the emergence of the High Renaissance style at the turn of the 16th century, he fell out of fashion, died in obscurity and was only returned to his position as one of the best-loved Quattrocento painters through the interest of Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites.


His posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting, and The Birth of Venus and Primavera rank now among the most familiar masterpieces of Florentine art.

 

"Adoration of the Magi"
Botticelli - 1475

botticelli venus painting

"Birth of Venus"
Botticelli - 1483

"Chart of Hell"
Botticelli - 1480

botticelli paintings

"Primavera"
Botticelli - 1478

"The Story of Nastagio degli"
Botticelli - 1483

 
sandro botticelli biography

Botticelli was born in Florence, Italy, in 1445. Details of Botticelli's life are sparse, but we know that he did not become an apprentice until he was about fourteen years old, which would indicate that he received a fuller education than did other Renaissance artists.

When Botticelli was 14 or 15 he was sent to the great painter, Fra Filippo. There he learned how to mix colors and clean brushes. Botticelli was greatly influenced by his teacher.

botticelli famous figure
sandro botticelli famous paintings


He spent his whole life in Florence except for a visit to Rome. Botticelli was a member of the Medici family. His real name was Alessandro Filipepi. He was nicknamed "Botticelli", which means "little barrel", and was originally bestowed on his older brother. For some reason the name was passed on to, and adopted by, the younger painter brother.

Many of Botticelli's paintings are undated, but an Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi) has been dated by modern scholarship to 1475. This is important because it provides evidence of Botticelli having already secured the patronage of the Medici whose portraits (according to Vasari) appear in the picture. So well did this work establish Botticelli's reputation that in 1481-82 he was commissioned to join Perugino, Ghirlandaio and Rosselli (the most celebrated painters of the day) to paint frescoes for the Sistine Chapel.

"Pallas and the Centaur"
Botticelli - 1482


Botticelli's two most famous paintings were painted around this time, possibly for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. They are the Primavera (1478) and the Birth of Venus (1483), both in the Uffizi. These are mythologies that exemplify the moral and metaphysical Neoplatonic ideas that were then fashionable in the Medici circles. Pure visual poetry, they are stylistically the essence of Botticelli: there is a deliberate denial of rational spatial construction and no attempt to model solid-looking figures; instead the figures float on the forward plane of the picture against a decorative landscape backdrop, and form, defined by outline, is willfully modified to imbue that outline with expressive power.

By 1465, Botticelli had his own studio. After the age of 56 no paintings were found that were painted by him. Botticelli died alone and infirm. He lived to be about 65 and died around 1510.

Botticelli had a very successful career, with a highly individual and graceful style founded on the rhythmic capabilities of outline. In fact, Botticelli became Florence's favorite artist. His paintings were very popular. Realism was ignored in Botticelli's paintings because he used allegories within delicate color and poetic lines.

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Botticelli - Manet - Caravaggio - Picasso

 

Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 – April 30, 1883) was a French painter. One of the first nineteenth century artists to approach modern-life subjects, he was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. His early masterworks The Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia engendered great controversy, and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism—today these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art.

 
manet famous paintings

"The Luncheon on the Grass"
Manet - 1863

edouard manet famous painting

"The Absinthe Drinker"
Manet - 1858

manet paintings

"The Railway "
Manet - 1872

famous paintings of manet

"A Bar at the Folies-Bergère"
Manet - 1882

"The Cafe Concert"
Manet - 1878

"Music in the Tuileries"
Manet - 1862

 

Biography


Edouard Manet was born on January 23, 1832 in Paris into the family of August Manet, an officer in the Ministry of Justice, and his wife Eugénie-Désirée née Fournier, daughter of a diplomat.

Although well educated, Édouard Manet did not particularly stand out within the academic environment but he showed an inclination toward drawing and the arts. His Uncle Charles Fournier encouraged Manet's appreciation for the arts and often took him and his childhood friend, Antonin Proust, on outings to the Louvre.

life of edouard manet


In 1848, Édouard enrolled to be naval cadet, but later he failed his examinations and decided to switch to painting. He joined the Thomas Couture Studio. After six years of learning in this studio, Édouard took a long travel through Europe.

By 1856, Manet already has his own studio. His style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details, and the elimination of transitional tones. During this time, he painted “The Absinthe Drinker” and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, singers, Gypsies, people in cafés, and bullfights.

During the 1960’s, Manet’s production was profuse. Unlike the main Impressionist group, Manet thought that modern artists should try to exhibit at the Paris Salon rather than abandon it in favor of independent exhibitions.


Indeed, in 1861, his “The Spanish Singer” was accepted at the Salon and won an honorable mention. But his submissions to the Salon of 1863, “The Picnic” among them, were rejected and appeared at the Salon des Refusés. The large canvas became the focus of scandalized critical and public attention.

After that, Manet decided to set up his own exhibition. His family was concerned about his inheritance because he would waste all his money on this enormously expensive project. Unfortunately, the exhibition didn’t gain good reviews from the critic, but it provided Manet his first contacts with several future Impressionist painters, including Degas.

Manet fought in the Franco-Prussian War as a gunner. After the war he returned to his family in the Pyrenees, where he painted “The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama”. In 1877 his “Hamlet” was admitted to the Salon, but “Nana” was rejected. The following works were exhibited at the Salon of 1881: In the Conservatory, In a Boat, and the portraits of [Henri] Rochefort and Proust. The Cross of the Legion of Honor was conferred on the painter on the 31st of December in that year. Manet died in Paris on the 20th of April 1883. He left, besides his pictures, a number of pastels and engravings.

Manet´s Work

Almost all the paintings of Édouard Manet represent scenes of the streets of Paris. His paintings of cafe scenes are observations of social life in nineteenth century Paris. People are drawn drinking beer, listening to music, flirting, reading, or waiting. Many of these paintings were based on sketches executed on the spot.

Throughout his life, although resisted by art critics, Manet could number as his champions Émile Zola, who supported him publicly in the press, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire, who challenged him to depict life as it was. Manet, in turn, drew or painted each of them.

In 1859, Manet’s ‘The Absinthe Drinker' is turned down by the Salon. Another major early work is The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe). The Paris Salon rejected it for exhibition in 1863, but he exhibited it at the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the rejected) later in the year.

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Botticelli - Manet - Caravaggio - Picasso

 
biography caravaggio

Michelangelo Merisi, called later Caravaggio, (1573-1610) probably the most revolutionary artist of his time, the Italian painter Caravaggio abandoned the rules that had guided a century of artists before him. He had many encounters with the law throughout his life. He was imprisoned for several assaults and for killing an opponent after a disputed score in a game of court tennis. Caravaggio fled the city and kept moving between hiding places. Caravaggio is also known for his desire to show the realism and the emotion in the paintings, as well as the choosing of outcast models.

 
famous painting caravaggio Crucifixion of Saint Peter

"Crucifixion of Saint Peter"
Caravaggio - 1601

caravaggio famous paintings

"Narcissus"
Caravaggio - 1597-1599

caravaggio paintings

"Portrait of Pope Paul V"
Caravaggio - 1605-1606

michelangelo merisi caravaggio painting

"Death of a Virgin"
Caravaggio - 1604

famous paintings

"The Cardsharps"
Caravaggio - 1594

"Beheading of Saint John the Baptist"
Caravaggio - 1608

 

Biography

Caravaggio (29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was born to Fermo Merisi and his wife Lucia Aratori. Fermo was the majordomo and architect of the Marchese di Caravaggio, Francesco Sforza. Caravaggio grew up during the early decades of the Counter-Reformation and this was to play an important role in his later paintings. Michelangelo's father, Fermo died in 1577 at the hand of the plague. Shortly thereafter, Caravaggio became apprenticed to the painter Simone Peterzano (1540 - 1596) of Milan.


Caravaggio apprenticed with Peterzano and during this time he learned the necessities to become a painter, including how to prepare colors, draw and paint, and learn anatomy and perspective. It is important to note that in the Lombardy region a naturalistic tendency in drawing and painting was prevalent. Helen Langdon suggests that a "study from nature" may have been a part of Caravaggio's training under Peterzano.

Caravaggio became an active artist in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. He is commonly placed in the Baroque school, of which he was the first great representative. Caravaggio's luck as a painter took a turn for the better in a series of paintings that brought him to the attention of Cardinal Francesco del Monte, who was a great lover of music and art. Del Monte was also director of the Accademia di San Luca (shared with Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti).

"The Conversion of St. Paul"
Caravaggio - 1601


Through the cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, Caravaggio was commissioned, at age 24, to paint for the church of San Luigi dei Francesi. In its Contarelli Chapel Caravaggio's realistic naturalism first fully appeared in three scenes he created of the life of St. Matthew. The works caused public outcry, however, because of their realistic and dramatic nature.

To the contemporary French painter Poussin, known for his peaceful scenes, Caravaggio was a subversive betrayer of the art of painting. To the police, he was a fugitive of wanted for murder. But to major artists like Rubens, Velásquez, and Rembrandt, he was a daring innovator who taught them how to male religious paintings seem both hyper real and overwhelmingly immediate.

Rebellious Nature

Caravaggio was considered enigmatic, fascinating, a rebel, and dangerous. He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600, and thereafter never lacked for commissions or patrons, yet handled his success atrociously.

"Bacchus"
Caravaggio - 1596

An early published notice on him, dating from 1604 and describing his lifestyle some three years previously, tells how "after a fortnight's work he will swagger about for a month or two with a sword at his side and a servant following him, from one ball-court to the next, ever ready to engage in a fight or an argument, so that it is most awkward to get along with him." In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl and fled from Rome with a price on his head. In Malta in 1608 he was involved in another brawl, and yet another in Naples in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on his life by unidentified enemies. By the next year, after a career of little more than a decade, he was dead.

Caravaggio’s addition

Huge new churches and palazzi were being built in Rome in the decades of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and paintings were needed to fill them. The Counter-Reformation Church searched for authentic religious art with which to counter the threat of Protestantism, and for this task the artificial conventions of Mannerism, which had ruled art for almost a century, no longer seemed adequate. Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism which combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, approach to chiaroscuro, the use of light and shadow.

"Boy with Fruit Basket"
Caravaggio - 1593

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Botticelli - Manet - Caravaggio - Picasso

 

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (b. 1881, d. 1973) is probably the most important figure in 20th Century art. Time magazine art critic Robert Hughes once said that "To say that Pablo Picasso dominated Western art in the 20th century is, by now, the merest commonplace. Before his 50th birthday, the little Spaniard from Malaga had become the very prototype of the modern artist as public figure. No painter before him had had a mass audience in his own lifetime."

 
picasso cubism famous paintings

"Desmoiselles d’Avignon"
Picasso - 1907

pablo picasso paintings

"Family of Saltimbanques"
Picasso - 1905

"The Frugal Repast"
Picasso - 1904

picasso blue period paintings

"The Blind Man´s Meal "
Picasso - 1903

picasso art painting

"Dora Maar au Chat"
Picasso - 1941

"Portrait of Gertrude Stein"
Picasso - 1906

"Las Meninas"
Picasso - 1957

"La Toilette"
Picasso - 1906

 

Biography

pablo picasso biography

Pablo Picasso was the first child of José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. He was baptized with the names Pablo Diego José Santiago Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispín Crispiniano de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Blasco y Picasso.

The young Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. It was from his father, who was an art professor, that Picasso had his first formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil.


In 1897 Picasso studied at the Madrid Academy in the Spanish capital. Dissatisfied with the training, he quit and returned to Barcelona. He was a rebel from the start and, as a teenager, began to frequent the Barcelona cafes where intellectuals gathered. In 1900, he made his first trip to Paris, the current world capital of art, and soaked up the works of Manet, Gustave Courbet, and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose sketchy style impressed him greatly.

During his living in Paris, Picasso shared a small room with Max Jacob in theb boulevard Voltaire. Jacobs (journalist and poet) helped him learn French. They were times of severe poverty, cold and desperation.

picasso famous paintings

"Garçon à la pipe"
Picasso - 1905


Much of his work had to be burned to keep the small room warm. Then, he started traveling from Paris to Barcelona and Madrid.

In 1904, he established definitely in Paris, in the “Bateau Lavoir” in the Rou Ravignon. In the same year, Picasso began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. She appears in paintings many of the Rose period. After acquiring fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Eva Gouel (Marcelle Humbert), whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in the painting “Ma Jolie” and in many other works. The next year, Picasso met Apollinaire, who would eventually introduce him to Braque. He also met several important figures like Gertrude Stein, André Derain and Henri Matisse.

In 1915, Eva Gouel died from a lethal disease. Two years later, Picasso traveled to Rome and spent time with Diaghilev’s ballet company, working on décor for “Parade”. There, Picasso met Igor Stravinsky and fell in love with the dancer Olga Khokhlova. After traveling with the ballet company, Picasso fell in love with Olga, and married her in 1918. thanks to his wife contacts, Picasso started to move in different social circles.

In 1927, Picasso started an extramarital relationship with seventeen-year old Marie-Thérèse Walter, with whom he would have a child in 1935. This pregnancy split Picasso’s marriage. But, the divorce took very long because Picasso’s fortune was in dispute. In 1936, he is involved with the Yugoslavian photographer Dora Maar, whom would be Picasso’s companion.

Picasso has an exuberant love life. Picasso had two wives (Olga Khokhlova and Jacqueline Roque) and four children by three women.

Picasso´s Work

Picasso's work is often categorized into "periods". While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period, the Rose Period, the African-influenced Period, Analytic Cubism, and Synthetic Cubism.

Blue Period: Picasso’s artistic production is usually described in terms of a series of overlapping periods. In his “Blue Period” (1901–4) he depicted the world of the poor. Predominantly in tones of blue, these melancholy paintings (such as The Old Guitarist, 1903; Art Inst. of Chicago) are among the most popular art works of the century.

Rose Period: Canvases from Picasso’s “Rose Period” (1905–6) are characterized by a lighter palette and greater lyricism. Picasso began to use delicate pinks and earth colors to paint circus performers like harlequins and acrobats. During this period, Picasso’s Parisian studio attracted the major figures of the avant-garde at this time, including Matisse, Braque, Apollinaire, and Gertrude Stein.

African-influenced Period: Picasso discovered the power of African masks and incorporated their motifs into his art. In the same year, 1907, he produced the breakthrough painting “Desmoiselles d’Avignon”, one of the few works that singlehandedly altered the course of art.

Cubism: Called the first truly twentieth-century painting, “Desmoiselles D’Avignon” effectively ended the nearly 500-year reign of Renaissance-ruled Western art. Picasso fractures the laws of perspective, breaking up the space into jagged planes without orderly recession. Picasso smashed bodies to bits and reassembled them as faceted planes that one critic compared to a “field of broken glass”.

One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, Picasso is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. It has been estimated that Picasso produced about 13,500 paintings or designs, 100,000 prints or engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures or ceramics.

In 1939-40 the Museum of Modern Art in New York, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major and highly successful retrospective of his principal works up until that time. This exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars.
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Botticelli - Manet - Caravaggio - Picasso

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